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Ocular Physiology – Dry Eye

Ocular Physiology – Dry Eye Midterm 1

Q.1)  Which of the following is a change that occurs in the anterior corneal environment with eyelid closure?
A. Decrease in tear pH due to the acidic nature of the metabolic waste
B. Decrease in efficiency of metabolic waste removal
C. Decrease accumulation of cellular debris since there is drainage through the nasolacrimal duct while we sleep
D. Decrease temperature and respiratory quotient
 
Q.2)  As discussed in class there are two categories of dry eye ________ and evaporative
( 2 words )
 
Q.3)  Which of the following are examples of extrinsic evaporative dry eye
A. Allergy
B. CL wear
C. Vitamin A deficiency
D. Reflex block
E. Disorders of the lid aperture
 
Q.4)  What is the most common disease we will see according to Dr. Ridder?
( 2 words )
Q.5)  Risk factors for Dry eye include:
A. Older female
B. Cigarette smoking
C. Vitamin A deficiency
D. Antihistamines
E. Anti-cholinergics
F. Hispanic ethnicity
 
Q.6)  A patient suffers from Trichiasis, which a schirmer score of < 2. The patient exhibits marked conjunctival staining and severe punctate erosions on corneal staining. What grade would you assign them on the dry eye severity grading scheme?
A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
 
Q.7)  Which of the following are some possible causes of an aqueous deficiency?
A. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
B. Congenital alacrima ( born with no lacrimal gland)
C. Trauma such as irradiation and chemical burns
D. Excess intake of Omega III fatty acids
E. Infections such as trachoma
 
Q.8)  Mucin deficiency are pretty much things that damage the conjuntiva
A. True
B. False
 
Q.9)  Overtime humans have meibomian gland drop out resulting in a lipid deficiency. Congential disorders and meibomian keratoconjunctivitis are also other causes of lipid deficiency.
A. True
B. False
 
Q.10)  Which of the following are treatments for severe dry eye?
A. Moist environment
B. Punctal occlusion both the lower and upper
C. Lubricating ointment
D. Artifical tears without preservatives 4x daily to hourly
E. The exact same treatments for moderate dry eye with no new additions
 
Q.11)  What technique do we use to determine surface wettability?
( 2 words )
 
Q.12)  Select all the true statements
A. If a drop of liquid beads using the sessile technique the surface is hydrophilic
B. The relative sessile contact angle is calculated by finding the left and right angles and dividing by 200.
C. The bare stroma of the cornea is fairly hydrophilic
D. The basement membrane is fairly hydrophobic
E. The water contact angle is the highest with the epithelial surface at 81 degrees

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