The remedy and solution for terrible eye pain and eye strain (from excessive computer use)

Aloe vera’s anti-inflammatory property

Aloe contains a broad spectrum of free amino acids, free monosaccharides, and total saccharides released upon hydrolysis, sterols (mainly B-sitosterol) plus lupeol. Note: B-sitosterol is a powerful anti-inflammatory and anti-cholesterolmatic. Lupeol is a powerful pain killer and anti-microbial.

Aloe Vera contains at least three anti-inflammatory fatty acids, cholesterol, campersterol and B-sitosterol (plant sterols) which explains why it is a highly effective treatment for burns, cuts, scrapes, abrasions, allergic reactions, rheumatoid arthritis, rheumatic fever, acid indigestion, ulcers, plus many inflammatory conditions of the digestive system and other internal organs, including the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, kidney, and pancreas. B-sitosterol is also a powerful anti-cholestromatic which helps to lower harmful cholesterol levels, helping to explain its many benefits for heart patents.


Before sleeping I put in castor oil and ointments to dull the pain. Last night (4 Dec 2011) I got up but couldn’t go back to sleep because of intense burning pain. I tried putting an ointment as well as castor oil, to no effect. I tried thera tears gel. No effect. Then put honey. No effect. Finally tried aloe vera. Finally some temporary relief. 

Why does aloe vera have a "cooling" effect on burning eyes?
Some possible answers:
Plant sterols, like steroid drugs, have an anti-inflammatory effect.  However, steroids inhibit “healing” or tissue regeneration- which conversely Aloe vera promotes. Dr. Robert Davis found the natural sterols having the strongest anti inflammatory effect in Aloe vera are- lupeol, beta sitosterol, and campesterol. (3) (4)
3. Davis R, Donato S, et al. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1994;84(2):77-81
4. Davis, RH: Aloe vera, hydrocortisone, and sterol influence on wound tensile strength and anti-inflammation. J of Am Podiatric Medical Assoc, 84(12), December, 1994, pp 614-619.
It also works on skin, and if applied on the hair reduces dandruff (apparently – haven't tried it).
Napoleon had no army hospital but a horse-drawn wagon of aloe vera for the benefit of his soldiers [Source]

How to make Aloe Vera eye drops

To make eye drops, dissolve half a teaspoon of aloe vera gel powder into one cup of water. Filter first before putting into the eye. Your eyes will be clean from dust and dirt. [Source]
To create an eyewash, dissolve ½ tsp of powdered aloe gel in one cup of water. To accelerate the healing process add one teaspoon of boric acid. Pour the solution through a coffee filter before applying to the eyes. [Source]

Eat aloe vera leaves raw

Here's a surprise piece of info: http://www.everydayhealth.com/profile/kcchhan

Here's more: http://www.aloe-vera-and-handy-herbs.com/eat-your-aloe-vera.html

How to make an Aloe vera smoothie

http://www.naturalnews.com/021858.html (a really comprehensive article)

"Aloe vera halts inflammationUsing aloe topically is well known to ease inflammation of joints, reducing arthritis pain. But aloe can also be used internally, reducing inflammation throughout the body from the inside out. People who drink aloe vera for two weeks typically begin to experience a significant reduction of inflammation symptoms. or a list of studies and references,click here."

How to cook aloe vera


How to poach Aloe vera – recipe


Even prickly pear may help

More stuff: http://www.your-health-and-wellness-guide.com/Aloe-Vera.html

and http://health.centreforce.com/health/aloe.html

More stuff

#1. Aloe vera “Shoots” A Messenger of Pain Called Bradykinin
Bradykinin is part of the body’s complex mechanism that causes painful inflammation.  In studies, Aloe vera has been shown to possess anti-bradykinin activity.  Aloe vera contains the enzyme bradykinase, which breaks down bradykinin (1)(2). In this regard, Aloe vera can help knee pain, backpain, shoulder pain or other joint pain.
#2. Aloe vera Contains Plant Sterols That Are Powerful 
Anti-inflammatory Agents
Plant sterols, like steroid drugs, have an anti-inflammatory effect.  However, steroids inhibit “healing” or tissue regeneration- which conversely Aloe vera promotes. Dr. Robert Davis found the natural sterols having the strongest anti inflammatory effect in Aloe vera are- lupeol, beta sitosterol, and campesterol. (3) (4)
#3. Aloe vera Contains an Aspirin Like Substance Called Salicylic Acid
Salicylic acid has pain relieving properties and reduces inflammation by inhibiting the production of prostaglandin hormones- which encourage inflammation.  Aspirin or “acetylsalicylic acid” is chemically derived from natural salicylic acid.  And we know, unlike aspirin, Aloe vera does not hurt your stomach or digestion- actually it helps it. Aloe vera may help knee pain, shoulder pain, back pain or other joint pain.
#4. Aloe vera Has a COX-2 Inhibiting Effect
Researchers in Mexico found that Aloe vera inhibits cyclooxygenase (COX-2), an enzyme that causes inflammation via the arachidonic acid pathway.  Again, it does this without causing the unwanted side-effects of the COX-2 drugs.(5). Again, this may help your knee pain, back pain, shoulder pain or other joint pain.
#5.  Aloe vera “Fixes” Digestion and Bowel Function-  Overlooked 
Causes of “Silent Inflammation”
Impaired digestion and poor absorption of proteins creates “foreign” invaders that your body views as a threat and seeks “protection” through inflammation.  This “auto-immune” response ultimately results in conditions such as Rheumatoid arthritis, Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS), Crohn's disease and Colitis.
A study by Dr. Jeffrey Bland(6)  showed how taking Aloe Vera internally improves protein digestion/absorption, balances acid levels, improves colonic activity and lowers bowel putrefaction- in just one week.  By improving digestion and elimination, you help reduce chronic inflammation, potentially improving knee pain, back pain, shoulder pain and other joint pain.
#6. Aloe Polysaccharides Stimulate Fibroblasts
Which Grow and Repair Tissue
The “miracle” of Aloe is that it uniquely can reduce inflammation and promote tissue regeneration- which by itself helps reduce inflammation.  Dr. Davis and Dr. Ivan Danhoff have shown that Aloe polysaccharides (long chain sugar molecules) stimulate fibroblasts that promote the tissue regrowth.  But to do this, the polysaccharides need to be in the presence of the other Aloe nutrients- another reason why you want whole leaf aloe vera.
  The polysaccharides also help the immune system remove toxic waste which has an anti-inflammatory benefit.

  1. "Bradykinase Activity in Aloe Extract: Fujita, K., Teradaira, R. & Nagatsu, T., BiochemicalPharmacology 25 205, 1976.
  2. Bautista-Perez R, Segura-Cobos D, Vasquez-Cruz B. In vitro antibradykinin activity of Aloe barbadensis gel. J Ethnopharmacol. July 2004;93(1):89-92.
  3. Davis R, Donato S, et al. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity of a growth substance in aloe vera. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1994;84(2):77-81.
  4. Davis, RH: Aloe vera, hydrocortisone, and sterol influence on wound tensile strength and anti-inflammation. J of Am Podiatric Medical Assoc, 84(12), December, 1994, pp 614-619.
  5. Vazquez B, Avila G, et al. Anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Aloe vera gel. J Ethnopharmacol. 1996;55(1):69-75.
  6. Bland, Jeffrey, “Effect of orally consumed Aloe Vera juice on gastrointestinal function in normal humans”. Preventative Medicine March/April, 1985

Further stuff, from World Health Organisation


Medicinal uses
Uses supported by clinical data
Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine
Aloe Vera Gel is widely used for the external treatment of minor wounds and inflammatory skin disorders (114–17). The gel is used in the treatment of minor skin irritations, including burns, bruises, and abrasions (11418). The gel is further used in the cosmetics industry as a hydrating ingredient in liquids, creams, sun lotions, shaving creams, lip balms, healing ointments, and face packs (1).
Aloe Vera Gel has been traditionally used as a natural remedy for burns (1819). Aloe Vera Gel has been effectively used in the treatment of first- and second-degree thermal burns and radiation burns. Both thermal and radiation burns healed faster with less necrosis when treated with preparations containing Aloe Vera Gel (1819). In most cases the gel must be freshly prepared because of its sensitivity to enzymatic, oxidative, or microbial degradation. Aloe Vera Gel is not approved as an internal medication, and internal administration of the gel has not been shown to exert any consistent therapeutic effect.
Uses described in folk medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data
The treatment of acne, haemorrhoids, psoriasis, anaemia, glaucoma, petit ulcer, tuberculosis, blindness, seborrhoeic dermatitis, and fungal infections (2619).
Wound healing
Clinical investigations suggest that Aloe Vera Gel preparations accelerate wound healing (1418). In vivo studies have demonstrated that Aloe Vera Gel promotes wound healing by directly stimulating the activity of macrophages and fibroblasts (14). Fibroblast activation by Aloe Vera Gel has been reported to increase both collagen and proteoglycan synthesis, thereby promoting tissue repair (14). Some of the active principles appear to be polysaccharides composed of several monosaccharides, predominantly mannose. It has been suggested that mannose 6-phosphate, the principal sugar component of Aloe Vera Gel, may be partly responsible for the wound healing properties of the gel (14). Mannose 6-phosphate can bind to the growth factor receptors on the surface of the fibroblasts and thereby enhance their activity (1415).
Furthermore, acemannan, a complex carbohydrate isolated from Aloe leaves, has been shown to accelerate wound healing and reduce radiationinduced skin reactions (2021). The mechanism of action of acemannan appears to be twofold. First, acemannan is a potent macrophage-activating agent and therefore may stimulate the release of fibrogenic cytokines (2122). Second, growth factors may directly bind to acemannan, promoting their stability and prolonging their stimulation of granulation tissue (20).
The therapeutic effects of Aloe Vera Gel also include prevention of progressive dermal ischaemia caused by burns, frostbite, electrical injury and intraarterial drug abuse. In vivo analysis of these injuries demonstrates that Aloe Vera Gel acts as an inhibitor of thromboxane A2, a mediator of progressive tissue damage (1417). Several other mechanisms have been proposed to explain the activity of Aloe Vera Gel, including stimulation of the complement linked to polysaccharides, as well as the hydrating, insulating, and protective properties of the gel (1).
Because many of the active ingredients appear to deteriorate on storage, the use of fresh gel is recommended. Studies of the growth of normal human cells in vitro demonstrated that cell growth and attachment were promoted by exposure to fresh Aloe vera leaves, whereas a stabilized Aloe Vera Gel preparation was shown to be cytotoxic to both normal and tumour cells. The cytotoxic effects of the stabilized gel were thought to be due to the addition of other substances to the gel during processing (23).
The anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe Vera Gel has been revealed by a number of in vitro and in vivostudies (14172425). Fresh Aloe Vera Gel significantly reduced acute inflammation in rats (carrageenin-induced paw oedema), although no effect on chronic inflammation was observed (25). Aloe Vera Gel appears to exert its anti-inflammatory activity through bradykinase activity (24) and thromboxane B2 and prostaglandin F2 inhibition (1826). Furthermore, three plant sterols in Aloe Vera Gel reduced inflammation by up to 37% in croton oil-induced oedema in mice (15). Lupeol, one of the sterol compounds found in Aloe vera, was the most active and reduced inflammation in a dosedependent manner (15). These data suggest that specific plant sterols may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory activity of Aloe Vera Gel.
Burn treatment
Aloe Vera Gel has been used for the treatment of radiation burns (27–30). Healing of radiation ulcers was observed in two patients treated with Aloe vera cream (27), although the fresh gel was more effective than the cream (2930). Complete healing was observed, after treatment with fresh Aloe Vera Gel, in two patients with radiation burns (30). Twenty-seven patients with partialthickness burns were treated with Aloe Vera Gel in a placebo-controlled study (31). The Aloe Vera Gel-treated lesions healed faster (11.8 days) than the burns treated with petroleum jelly gauze (18.2 days), a difference that is statistically significant (t-test, P < 0.002).
Aloe Vera Gel is contraindicated in cases of known allergy to plants in the Liliaceae.
No information available.
No information available concerning general precautions, or precautions dealing with carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, impairment of fertility; drug and laboratory test interactions; drug interactions; nursing mothers; paediatric use; or teratogenic or non-teratogenic effects on pregnancy.
Adverse reactions
There have been a few reports of contact dermatitis and burning skin sensations following topical applications of Aloe Vera Gel to dermabraded skin (1832). These reactions appeared to be associated with anthraquinone contaminants in this preparation (33). A case of disseminated dermatitis has been reported following application of Aloe Vera Gel to a patient with stasis dermatitis (34). An acute bullous allergic reaction and contact urticaria have also been reported to result from the use of Aloe Vera Gel (35).
Fresh gel or preparations containing 10–70% fresh gel.
1. Bruneton J. Pharmacognosy, phytochemistry, medicinal plants. Paris, Lavoisier, 1995.
2. Grindlay D, Reynolds T. The Aloe vera phenomenon: a review of the properties and modern uses of the leaf parenchyma gel. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 1986, 16:117– 151.
3. Newton LE. In defence of the name Aloe vera. The cactus and succulent journal of Great Britain, 1979, 41:29–30.
4. Tucker AO, Duke JA, Foster S. Botanical nomenclature of medicinal plants. In: Cracker LE, Simon JE, eds. Herbs, spices and medicinal plantsVol. 4. Phoenix, AR, Oryx Press, 1989:169–242.
5. Hänsel R et al., eds. Hagers Handbuch der Pharmazeutischen PraxisVol. 6, 5th ed. Berlin, Springer, 1994.
6. Youngken HW. Textbook of pharmacognosy, 6th ed. Philadelphia, Blakiston, 1950.
7. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998.
8. Deutsches Arzneibuch 1996. Vol. 2. Methoden der Biologie. Stuttgart, Deutscher Apotheker Verlag, 1996.
9. European pharmacopoeia, 3rd ed. Strasbourg, Council of Europe, 1997.
10. Rowe TD, Park LM. Phytochemical study of Aloe vera leaf. Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 1941, 30:262–266.
11. Guidelines for predicting dietary intake of pesticide residues, 2nd rev. ed. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1997 (unpublished document WHO/FSF/FOS/97.7; available from Food Safety, WHO, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland).
12. Pierce RF. Comparison between the nutritional contents of the aloe gel from conventional and hydroponically grown plants. Erde international, 1983, 1:37–38.
13. Hart LA et al. An anti-complementary polysaccharide with immunological adjuvant activity from the leaf of Aloe vera. Planta medica, 1989, 55:509–511.
14. Davis RH et al. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing of growth substance in Aloe vera. Journal of the American Pediatric Medical Association, 1994, 84:77–81.
15. Davis RH et al. Aloe vera, hydrocortisone, and sterol influence on wound tensile strength and anti-inflammation. Journal of the American Pediatric Medical Association, 1994, 84:614–621.
16. Heggers JP, Pelley RP, Robson MC. Beneficial effects of Aloe in wound healing. Phytotherapy research, 1993, 7:S48–S52.
17. McCauley R. Frostbite-methods to minimize tissue loss. Postgraduate medicine, 1990, 88:67–70.
18. Shelton RM. Aloe vera, its chemical and therapeutic properties. International journal of dermatology, 1991, 30:679–683.
19. Haller JS. A drug for all seasons, medical and pharmacological history of aloe. Bulletin of New York Academy of Medicine, 1990, 66:647–659.
20. Tizard AU et al. Effects of acemannan, a complex carbohydrate, on wound healing in young and aged rats. Wounds, a compendium of clinical research and practice, 1995, 6:201–209.
21. Roberts DB, Travis EL. Acemannan-containing wound dressing gels reduce radiation-induced skin reactions in C3H mice. International journal of radiation oncology, biology and physiology, 1995, 15:1047–1052.
22. Karaca K, Sharma JM, Norgren R. Nitric oxide production by chicken macrophages activated by acemannan, a complex carbohydrate extracted from Aloe vera. International journal of immunopharmacology, 1995, 17:183–188.
23. Winters WD, Benavides R, Clouse WJ. Effects of aloe extracts on human normal and tumor cells in vitroEconomic botany, 1981, 35:89–95.
24. Fujita K, Teradaira R. Bradykininase activity of aloe extract. Biochemical pharmacology, 1976, 25:205.
25. Udupa SI, Udupa AL, Kulkarni DR. Anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties of Aloe vera.Fitoterapia, 1994, 65:141–145.
26. Robson MC, Heggers J, Hagstrom WJ. Myth, magic, witchcraft or fact? Aloe vera revisited. Journal of burn care and rehabilitation, 1982, 3:157–162.
27. Collin C. Roentgen dermatitis treated with fresh whole leaf of Aloe veraAmerican journal of roentgen, 1935, 33:396–397.
28. Wright CS. Aloe vera in the treatment of roentgen ulcers and telangiectasis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 1936, 106:1363–1364.
29. Rattner H. Roentgen ray dermatitis with ulcers. Archives of dermatology and syphilogy, 1936, 33:593–594.
30. Loveman AB. Leaf of Aloe vera in treatment of roentgen ray ulcers. Archives of dermatology and syphilogy, 1937, 36:838–843.
31. Visuthikosol V et al. Effect of Aloe vera gel on healing of burn wounds: a clinical and histological study. Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, 1995, 78:403–409.
32. Hormann HP, Korting HC. Evidence for the efficacy and safety of topical herbal drugs in dermatology: Part 1: Anti-inflammatory agents. Phytomedicine, 1994, 1:161– 171.
33. Hunter D, Frumkin A. Adverse reactions to vitamin E and Aloe vera preparations after dermabrasion and chemical peel. Cutis, 1991, 47:193–194.
34. Horgan DJ. Widespread dermatitis after topical treatment of chronic leg ulcers and stasis dermatitis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 1988, 138:336–338.
35. Morrow DM, Rappaport MJ, Strick RA. Hypersensitivity to aloe. Archives of dermatology, 1980, 116:1064–1065.


A novel angiogenic factor derived from Aloe vera gel: beta-sitosterol, a plant sterol.



Aloe vera has marvelous medicinal properties.  Scientists have discovered over 150 nutritional ingredients in Aloe vera.  There seems to be no single magic ingredient. They all work together in a synergistic way to create healing and health giving benefits. The ten main areas of chemical constituents of Aloe vera include: amino acids, anthraquinones, enzymes, minerals, vitamins, lignins, monosaccharide, polysaccharides, salicylic acid, saponins, and sterols.33 

     The amino acids in Aloe vera are the building blocks of protein and influence our brain function.  Humans require 22 amino acids and the body will make all of them except for eight essential amino acids which our body gets from the food/drinks that we take in.  Every one of the essential amino acids are available in Aloe vera and they include isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, valine,and tryptophan. Some of the other non-essential amino acids found in Aloe vera include alanine, arginine, asparagine, cysteine, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, proline, serine, tyrosine, glutamine, and aspartic acid.34 

     Located in the sap of the leaves you will find twelve anthraquinones, a phenolic compound that has stimulating effects on the bowels and antibiotic properties. In small amounts the anthraquinones do not have a purgative effect.  They help with absorption from the gastro intestinal tract and have anti-microbial and pain killing effects.  Too many anthraquinones can produce abdominal pain and diarrhea. The most important anthraquinones are aloin and emodin. They are anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and analgesic.35   The anthraquinones in Aloe vera breakup residue, pus and lifeless cells, bring blood to the region and flush out material from the wounds and ulcers.36

       Enzymes act as biochemical catalysts that break down the proteins we eat into amino acids.  The enzymes turn the food we eat into fuel for every cell in our body, enabling the cells to function and work efficiently. “The main enzymes found in Aloe vera include Amylase (breaks down sugars and starches), Bradykinase (stimulates immune system, analgesic, anti-inflammatory), Catalase (prevents accumulation of water in the body), Cellulase (aids digestion – cellulose), Lipase (aids digestion – fats), Oxidase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Proteolytiase (hydrolyses proteins into their constituent elements), Creatine Phosphokinase (aids metabolism), and Carboxypeptidase.”37

      The next thing we need to ask ourselves is what fuels the enzymes?  The key is the vitamins and minerals we take in.  For instance if we lack in zinc and/or Vitamin B6, our body will not be able to break down or use protein.  Because of the healing properties of Aloe vera and its synergistic action, the body receives what it needs to work properly.  Aloe vera, an anti-oxidant rich plant, contains vitamins such as A, C, and E plus the minerals, zinc, and selenium. Anti-oxidants help boost the immune system and combat free radicals in the body.38  

     It also contains Vitamins B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, and B12 along with choline, calcium (teeth and bone formation, muscle contractions and heart health), magnesium(strengthens teeth and bones, maintains healthy muscles and nervous system, activates enzymes), zinc (speeds up wound healing, mental quickness assists with healthy teeth, bones, skin, immune system, and digestive aid), manganese (activates enzymes, builds healthy bones, nerves and tissues), chromium (assists with protein metabolism and balancing of blood sugars), selenium which all influence our brain performance.39  

     Additional minerals found in Aloe vera include copper (important for red blood cells, skin and hair pigment), iron (involved in oxygen transportation and making of hemoglobin in red blood cells), potassium (helps with fluid balance), phosphorus (helps build bones and teeth, assists with metabolism and body pH), and sodium (regulates body liquids, helps with nerve and muscle performance, and helps deliver nutrients into body cells).40  Aloe vera also contains the trace minerals of rhodium and iridium used in cancer and tumor research experiments.41

      Another component of Aloe vera consists of the lignins, a major structural material of cellulose content, that allows for penetrative properties.42   Aloe vera can soak into the skin up to seven layers deep.  Lignins penetrate the toughened areas of the skin being beneficial for skin problems such as eczema and psoriasis. 43

     The next elements of Aloe vera we will discuss include monosaccharides and polysaccharides. Monosaccharides contain the simple sugars which include glucose.  The polysaccharides are the more complex long-chain sugars involving glucose and mannose or the gluco-mannans. These sugars are ingested whole from the stomach. They do not get

broken down like other sugars, and appear in the bloodstream in exactly the same form.  This process is known as pinocytosis.  Once in the blood stream, they exert their healing and  immuno-regulating effect.  Some of these polysaccharides are not absorbed but stick to certain cells lining the gut and form a barrier preventing absorption of unwanted material so helping to prevent a leaking gut syndrome. The sugars are also used in moisturizing preparations.44

     One polysaccharide, acemannan, is known for its ability to restore and boost the immune system by stimulating the production of macrophages and improving the activity of T-Lymphocytes by up to 50 %. Acemannan produces immune agents such as interferon and interleukin which help to destroy viruses, bacteria, and tumor cells.45  Acemannan improves cellular metabolism by normalizing cellular function and regulating the flow of nutrients and wastes in and out of the cells.  It knows how to destroy parasites and fungus. In some AIDS patients, it even protected the immune system from the toxic side effects of AZT.46  Carrington Laboratories in the United States have separated the acemannan from Aloe vera. The product is sold as “Carrisyn” and is being used for treatment of AIDS and Feline leukemia.47 

     Many sources stated that Aloe vera has mucopolysaccharides, nitrogen containing polysaccharides, found in animals and bacteria.48  A regulation and testing board for Aloe vera products known as the International Aloe Science Council concludes that some people are misinformed and confused on terminology.  The Aloe has polysaccharides but not mucopolysaccharides.49  

     Aloe vera contains salicylic acid which is an aspirin-like compound with anti -inflammatory, analgesic, and anti-bacterial properties. It has anti-pyretic properties for reducing fevers.  Other constituents of Aloe vera would include prostaglandins, tannins, magnesium lactate, resins, mannins, proteins such as lectins, monosulfonic acid and gibberlin.50

     Another constituent of Aloe vera includes saponins.  These are soapy substances from the gel that is capable of cleansing and having antiseptic properties. The saponins perform strongly as anti-microbial against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and yeasts.51  The plant sterols or phyto-steroids in Aloe vera include Cholesterol, Campesterol, Lupeol, and B (Beta sign) Sitosterol.52  The plant steroids have fatty acids in them that have antiseptic, analgesic, and  anti-inflammatory properties.53


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